Estimated Pesticide Use On Golf Courses In Hawaii
by Barry M. Brennan, Alan K. Higashi, and Charles L. Murdoch


Table 1. Annual pesticide use on Hawaiian golf courses
Pesticide category
Surveyed quantity
(lb a.i./yr)
Estimated statewide
quantity (lb a.i./yr)
Percentage of total use
Herbicides
Fungicides
Insecticides
Algicides1

Total
53,876
12,614
2,719
1,232

70,441
94,025
19,051
4,463
2,328

119,867
78.4
15.9
3.7
1.9

1 Principally copper sulfate, a compound used in controlling algal blooms in ponds, small drainage catchments, and other water elements of golf courses. Cupric hydroxide, classified as a fungicide, is used as an algicide primarily on greens and tees.

Table 2. Annual herbicide use on Hawaiian golf courses
Herbicide
Surveyed quantity
(lb a.i./yr)
Estimated statewide
quantity (lb a.i./yr)
Percentage of total use
MSMA
Glyphosate
Oryzalin
Oxadiazon
Metribuzin
Dicamba
2,4-D
MCPP
CAMA
Simazine
Pronamide
Pendimethalin
Imazaquin
Bensulide

Total
36,445
3,798
3,399
3,201
1,710
1,269
1,029
802
790
563
515
288
59
8

53,876
63,578
7,000
6,254
5,171
3,109
2,335
1,893
1,476
946
1,036
573
530
109
15

94,025
67.6
7.4
6.7
5.5
3.3
2.5
2.0
1.6
1.0
1.1
0.6
0.6
0.1
---

Table 3. Annual fungicide use on Hawaiian golf courses
Fungicide
Surveyed quantity
(lb a.i./yr)
Estimated statewide
quantity (lb a.i./yr)
Percentage of total use
Chlorothalonil
Mancozeb
Iprodione
Cupric hydroxicide
Metalaxyl
Fosetyl-Al
Anilazine
Benomyl
PCNB

Total
6,808
3,345
944
891
390
112
100
19
5

12,614
8,969
6,155
1,154
1,639
700
206
184
35
9

19,051
47.1
32.3
6.0
8.6
3.7
1.1
1.0
0.2
---

Table 4. Annual insecticide use on Hawaiian golf courses
Insecticide
Surveyed quantity
(lb a.i./yr)
Estimated statewide
quantity (lb a.i./yr)
Percentage of total use
Chlorpyrifos
Carbaryl
Ethoprop
Bendiocarb
Fluvalinate
Hydramethylnon

Total
2,022
400
126
122
41
8

2,719
3,181
736
232
224
75
15

4,463
71.3
16.5
5.2
5.0
1.7
0.3

Table 5. Characteristics of use of the 13 pesticides most commonly used on Hawaiian golf courses
Pesticide
Percentage
of courses
using 1
Percentage
of acreage
treated 2
Estimated
statewide
acres 3
Maximum label
rate per
application 4
Estimated
annual
frequency
Estimated annual
average rate of
application 5
Herbicide
MSMA
Metribuzin
Dicamba
2,4-D
MCPP
Oryzalin

Fungicide
Metalaxyl
Chlorothalonil
Mancozeb
Iprodione
Cupric hydroxide

Insecticide
Chlorpyrifos
Carbaryl

97
70
54
54
43
40


84
76
71
38
34


76
37

55
48
48
48
48
41


3
3
3
3
3


x6
3

5,065
3,265
2,475
2,430
2,030
1,330


230
200
200
105
45


1,012
110

4.00
1.00
0.40
0.75
0.75
4.00


1.40
7.30
8.70
5.50
16.80


1.00
4.00

2-6
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
2-4


3-6
3-7
3-7
1-3
2-4


1-3
1-3

11.67
0.95
0.94
0.78
0.73
4.71


2.95
23.80
31.26
4.82
19.37


3.02
6.67
1 This the percentage of 37 surveyed courses actually reporting use. It is assumed to remain constant for the 68 courses statewide.

2 MSMA is applied to fairways (including tees), roughs, and greens: metribuzin, dicamba, 2,4-D, and MCPP are applied to fairways and, at approximately half frequency, to roughs; oryzalin is applied to fairways. Fungicides and insecticides are applied primarily to greens.

3 Fairways (including tees), treated roughs, and greens were assumed to constitute 55% of the total course acreage, fairways (including tees) 41%, and greens 3%. The estimated total of surveyed acreage was multiplied by the ratio 68:37 (1.84) to give an estimated statewide total. It was rounded to the nearest 5 acres.

4 1b a.i./A per application.

5 lb a.i./A/yr. Estimated application rates from the two golf courses using anomalously high amounts of pesticides were not included in the calculation of the mean statewide rates or application.

6 Varied considerably from course to course.


Document last updated: 16 March 1999